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Mongolia is the first world’s most sparsely populated country. With 1.56 million km2, Mongolia is the 18th largest country in the world but it is only populated with 3.15 million inhabitants. This represents a population density of only 2 persons/km2.

Urban population is reaching 67.5% with Mongolia capital city , Ulaanbaatar, recording 1.5 million inhabitants. Almost half the population live in rural areas, some are sedentary whiles others live as nomadic livestock herders. According to official data, 60% of the total population is under 30 with 27% being under 14.


Land-locked, Mongolia is characterized by an extreme climate and harsh natural conditions. Landscapes are varied with Gobi Desert to the south, mountains to the north and west while the majority of the country consists of the Mongolian-Manchurian grassland steppe. The highest point in Mongolia is the Khuiten Peak in the Tavan Bogd massif in the far west at 4,374m.


Mongolia is characterized by an extreme continental climate with very cold long-lasting winters and very hot short-lasting summers. Average temperatures are below freezing point from November through March and are fluctuating between – 03 C and 1 C in the months of April and October. Summer starts from May and last until August with temperatures able to reach on average 38 C in the Gobi Desert and 33 C in Ulaanbaatar. In winter, nights can witness temperatures dropping to -30 C.


Mongolia has transitioned from centralized planned economy modelled on Soviet Union economic principles to a socially oriented market economy. Traditionally, agriculture and livestock used to be the main economic activities of the city. However, centralized planned economy pushed for the development of the history as the country is reach of mineral resources such : copper, coal, tin or gold. Mining represents today 30% of Mongolia industrial activity. Services represent however the largest contributor to national GDP at just 50% followed by Industries with 40% and Agriculture with 10%. Mongolia is embarked into the redevelopment of its economy on a more sustainable basis, especially in the use of natural resources and energy sources.


The country passed for the first time the 500,000 mark in international travellers in 2018, a growth of 12.3% over 2017. Since 2016 , Mongolia tourism has seen a continuous growth in total international arrivals after three years of decline from 2013 to 2015. The country is likely to welcome over 700,000 international arrivals by the end of the decade. China,Russia and South Korea were the top inbound markets in 2017 while Germany, France and the UK were the top Western European inbound markets.


A 30-day tourist visa is required for most foreign nationals and can be easily obtained at any Mongolian embassy or consulate. Visa on arrival can be granted for countries with no embassy or consulate of Mongolia. A number of foreign travellers can visit Mongolia visa free. This includes citizens of Belarus, Brazil, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Macau, Serbia, Ukraine, and USA for up to 90 days. Citizens of Canada, Germany, Israel, Japan, Laos, Malaysia, Russia, Thailand, and Turkey can stay visa-free for up to 30 days, Philippines citizens benefit of 21 days and Hong Kong citizens of 14 days visa-free.


National carrier MIAT flies to nine destinations from Ulaanbaatar to Berlin, Frankfurt and Moscow in Europe, Bangkok in Southeast Asia, Beijing, Busan, Hong Kong, Seoul and Tokyo in Northeast Asia. From Hong Kong MIAT has a code share with Cathay Pacific for flights to Singapore, Delhi and Australia. MIAT will start flying last year to Guangzhou and Osaka. Other airlines flying to Ulaanbaatar include Aeroflot, Air China, Korean Air, and Turkish Airlines. Aero Mongolia and Hunnu Air offer domestic flights to all parts of Mongolia.

Source : Ministry of Environment and Tourism